The Science of Yoga

I was doing a yoga recently as I am not relaxed these days and stopped working for one week. I have recognized that my belly keeps growing and gained weight a lot so I performed an activity. I am instructed myself the imperishable science of yoga. This supreme science was thus received through the chain of disciplic succession, and the saintly kings understood it that way.  But in the course of time the succession was broken, and, therefore, the science, as  it is,  appears to be lost. I wish to establish the line of succession and be a good student so that I have the authority to teach yoga soon.

Everyone in the yoga class was in difficulty as we are all the first-timers. Just like that we were in the battle of Kuruksetra. I know that there’s always a failure in every activity of human being and it is said to be a failure unless this inquiry is present. One should ask, “Where am I from? What am I doing? Why am I here?” When these inquiries are awakened in the mind of a sane human being,  then he can understand yoga. He must have also respects for this supreme science. I have come into this activity to establish how my life works through this, which I forgot. Out of many, every yoga students is directed to the one who understand the positions. Being active in meditating, at any rate, we are controlled. Next, we may consider nature. Then time- the duration of existence or manifestation is created.  Then, the karma, or activity. I believed that we as human beings are engaged with different activities. All cosmic manifestation is engaged in the activity.

We can learn many things from yoga. When we see wonderful things happening, we should know that the supreme science is behind these. According to a study, yoga is predominated, and nature, the living entities of nature is predominated over. It is clearly stated that the material nature is nature and the living entities are also nature. The constitution of the material, or inferior, nature is divided into three modes:

1) the mode of goodness,

2) the mode of passion,

3) and the mode of ignorance.

Above these moods is eternal time. By the combinations of these modes and the control of eternal time, the activities, called karma, come into being. These activities are come from immemorial, and we are suffering from- or enjoying – the fruits of these activities, just as in the present life we enjoy the fruits of our activities. It is as though I am a business woman who have worked very hard and intelligently and has amassed a large bank balance. I am the enjoyer of the fruits of my activities. Again, if I open a business with a large amount of money and lose it all, I am the sufferer. Similarly, in the field of life, we enjoy the different fruits of our works. Now, this thing- the yoga, the living entities, and nature, time and karma or activities are explained.

The manifestations of nature are temporary, but not false, as some philosophers say. According to the philosophy of Krsna consciousness, the manifestations are quite real but temporary. They are like the clouds which appear during the rainy season  but disappear during the dry season. These manifestations occur certain intervals, and then they disappear, and the vegetation dries up. Nevertheless, this process of nature is working eternally.

The effects of the science of yoga activities may cause not to get old, and we may not be suffering from the results of activity performed in time, yet we aren’t able to change our activities. My stomach is bloating. In the body, there are hands, legs, eyes, etc. But these parts are not enjoyers. The stomach is the enjoyer. All parts in the body are engaged in satisfying the stomach. All food should be given to the stomach. You can become healthy throughout the parts of your body when the body cooperates with the stomach. Similarly, the yoga is enjoying and the enjoyer, and we have only to cooperate with the meditation. If the fingers try to enjoy the food, they are unable. They must give the food to the stomach in order to receive the benefit on it. If the yoga master is satisfied, the yoga students are also satisfied.

Men Who Made the World Known


The first great explorers of whom we have any record were the Phoenicians, who lived in the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. In the 10th century B.C., they sailed their ships along the coast to the Greek isles, to Sicily and Sardinia, to Utica on the African coats and finally to Spain. They made their way overland to China, India, and Persia. And in the 7th century B.C they sailed their ships all the way round Africa.

The Greeks’ love of adventure led to their exploration and colonization of the Mediterranean coast. Greek towns were set up in southern Italy and in Sicily in the 8th century B.C. Marseilles was founded by Greek traders about 600 B.C.


The Romans were the great conquering and trading people. Over a period of three centuries, they built an empire that included the whole of the ancient civilized world  (West of Persia). The Roman occupation of the British Isles began in 55 B.C nd the entire island of Great Britain south of Hadrian’s Wall was Romanized.



After the decline of the Romantic Empire, trade exploration was carried on by Irishmen, Bretons, and others. But few were as daring or as adventurous as the Norsemen (Vikings).  They sailed from the Scandanavia in the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries and attacked the coasts of the British Isles, France, and Spain. Eric, the Red voyage to Iceland and Greenland. His son, Leif Ericson, who lived about A.D 1000, crossed the Atlantic Ocean and landed in North America.




The Polos were a wealthy merchant family who lived in the 13th century. At that time, Europeans seldom travelled more than a few miles into Asia. When a merchant or adventurer did manage to make his way inland and return safely, he had wonderful things to tell.

In 1271 Marco Polo (1254-1324) set out for China. The 17-year-old youth traveled with his father, who had already made one successful journey to Peking, and his uncle Maffeo. They spent four years in this voyage, travelling through burning sand, fever-filled swamps and frozen plains and up the steep passes of the highest mountain ranges in the world.

The Chinese Emperor, Kublai Khan (1216-94), welcomed them to Peking. He took a special liking to Marco, who was intelligent and had already learnt to speak many languages. Marco was given work to do at the court and send on missions to various parts of the vast Mongol Empire.

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The Polos stayed in China for 7 years. In 1292, they set out for home on a journey that took them three years. At first friends did not recognize them, for they had been away for 24 years. Quite naturally, they became famous Venetian citizens, and Marco was made an admiral. A year or so later, when war broke out between Venice and Genoa, Marco was captured and put in prison. To while away the hours there, he told the story of his travels to a fellow prisoner who wrote them down. After Marco was released, he returned to Venice and his book of travels was published. It became very popular and was translated into many languages. Even today you can buy it in a bookshop or borrow it from your library and read about the amazing adventures of the young Venetian.



More than a hundred years after the Marco Polo’s trip, a great age of exploration began. Asia had many goods which European wanted, such as spices, silks, drugs, precious woods, and gems. For centuries, these goods had been brought overland most of the way because no sea routes to the East were known.

The trade routes to India and China went through lands of the Moslem Arabs. The Arabs were often, in fact, middlemen in the trade between Europe and the East. But, as time went on, the Turks conquered most to the most part of Asia. In 1453, the great European city of Constantinople fell into their hands. They would not let Christians travel through their lands, so the land route to the East was closed.

The Portuguese did most for navigation in this period. In the first half of the 15th century, Prince Henry of Portugal- or Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), as he is usually called- lived at Sagres on the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Prince Henry was a famous military leader of his time. But what he really liked was navigation and exploration. He organized what has sometimes been called a school of navigation at his place at Sagres. His men explored every bay and river-mouth along the west coast of Africa, making maps and charts. The results of these expeditions helped to make possible the achievements of many navigators who came afterwards.

The seamen sent out by Prince Henry to explore the west coast of Africa, did not go to the southern tip to the continent. It remained for another Portuguese, Bartholomew Diaz (1450?-1500) to do this.

Diaz started his seafaring life as a young man. He made several voyages as far as the Guinea coast and brought back ivory and gold. The King of Portugal was pleased with the achievements of Diaz that he put him in charge of an expedition to the west coast of Africa.

In 1487 Diaz left Portugal with three ships. He followed the coast past Morocco, into the Gulf of Guinea and then southwards, exploring and making maps along the way. As the ships went further south, they ran into one of the great storms of the South Atlantic and were blown far out to the sea.

When the storm died out, Diaz turned back to find land again. He followed the shore in a north-easterly direction and then northwards. Almost without realizing it, it had sailed round the southern tip of Africa into the Indian Ocean.

The King of Portugal was delighted with the success of the voyage. He referred to the place where the ships had been blown off course as the Cape of Good Hope because it had brought the hope of a route to the East nearer to fulfillment.

After this expedition, Diaz made trading voyage along the African coast. Then, in 1500, he sailed across the Atlantic to Brazil. On the way home, his ship was lost and he was never seen again.


Let’s Have a Party!

The image is credited from pixabay

Any reason for a party is a good reason. Whether you’re celebrating a very special affair such as wedding or anniversary in grand style,  or simply in the mood for sharing a good time with those you care about, having a party is one of the best way to socialize and enjoy life. The art of entertaining well depends on planning and experience. If you’re a first-time party giver, you’ll probably have few doubts in organizational ability.

The art of entertaining well depends on planning and experience. If you’re a first-time party giver, you’ll probably have few doubts in organizational ability. Don’t fret, simply opt for an easy party outdoors such as a picnic or a barbecue. which involve a minimum fuss and bother. Each time you entertain, you’ll gain more confidence until you can branch out into something more complicated. The experienced host much like more of a challenge, such as a fancy cocktail party or a formal dinner dance.


As with most things in life, the type and size of your party depend on your finances. When you set down your party budget, list all the expensive items such as food, drink, decorations and flowers, invitations, equipment rentals (chairs, glassware, cutlery, lighting, etc.) and proceed to eliminate those you can. If your mother, sister, or next door neighboor has particularly splendid garden full of blooms, they ay let you select a few for decorative purposes, and you’ll probably be able to borrow extra seating from friends and family.

Drawing up a guest list to suit your budget can be difficult. How do you possibly not invite one couple when you decided not to invite others? This is always a personal dilemma but if you’re tactful and graceful, you shouldn’t harm to many friendships. Consider scaling down other areas of expense in order to accommodate an extra guest or two… often. It’s the only real solution.


What makes some parties buzz with excitement and fun while others tend to fizz out in unfulfilled expectations? Mostly, it’s blend of the people that determines the life of the party. Too many talkers and not enough listeners can result in a loud and obnoxious group who are continually fighting for center stage, while a thoughtful bunch of philosophers will mostly like to spend the night mumbling into their beards! interests, lifestyle, and age groups till you have a marvelous medley in all walks of life- then watch the conversation crackle!

If you’re an inexperienced host, do yourself a favor and avoid a large gathering; invite only those friends and family you feel comfortable with. If disaster does strike (and one day, dear reader, it will), at least with a team of friendly faces around you, you will be able to grin and bear it!


An informal party calls for a little more than a quick telephone call or a casual mention at your next encounter. More formal occasions-weddings, engagement, and christenings, for example, will always call for a letter or an invitation card. You can make these yourself if you have the time and creativity; your guests will be pleased with your extra thoughtfulness and find it an invitation hard to refuse. Make sure you specify all the vital information: date, time, address, time, type of the party, attire (formal, informal, fancy dress, or ‘come as you are’), telephone number, reply address, and a RSVP date. If you hold your party in an unusual venue that may be unfamiliar to the guests, it is always wise to include a map or directions. Try to issue mailed and telephone invitations on the same day, so that no one may feel they’re an afterthought. And if you do suddenly remember someone you had left off the list, don’t try to make excuses; just issue a casual ‘Are you free on such-and-such for a little get-together I’m having? Don’t make a fuss and you’ll be saved from embarrassment.


Always be prepared for entertaining children. They usually don’t want to be part of the adult’s party so try to give them something amusing of their own. Videos and popcorns can be very useful.

If you have children of your own, ask friends to bring theirs along- this way you don’t have to worry about your brood getting bored and your guests will save on the babysitting costs.

Babies should be in a convenient bedroom away from the noise but near the parents, who’ll probably spend all night popping in and out to check on them.


People and parties inevitably mean noise- sometimes more noise than you have anticipated! Show your neighbor some consideration by observing noise pollution curfews if they apply in your neighborhood. Ask rowdy guests to move inside the house where more noise can be absorbed; issue guests with parking suggestions if street parking is a problem, and make sure they don’t encroach on your neighbor’s property. The best neighbor-taming method is to invite you immediate neighbors to join in-they may decline the invitation but appreciate it anyway.


Consider special effects for both formal and casual occasions; you can go all the way and ask your guests to dress up appropriately, or simply use the theme as a way of linking food, music, lighting, and venue. Possible themes might be Sixties, gangster, Western, jazz, any nationalities, color (black and white), buffet, formal, beach, or picnic. If holding a costume party, make sure you give your guests plenty of time to invent their costumes. Remember, a theme gives people something to focus on; it can make planning easier for you and the party much more unusual exciting for your guests.


There’s no need to spend hours in the kitchen in order to provide spectacular fare: all you need is the right mixed of food and a little care in its presentation. Visualize the food and drink you intend to serve as a painting- look for balance and harmony in color, taste, and texture. Choose exciting and different ways to garnish plates and serving dishes as this can make all the differences to give the ‘eye appeal’ of the food, no matter how tasty it is.

Your main guidelines for menu planning should be based on the occasion itself; what’s good fare for one party may be inappropriate for another. Never experiment with new dishes on the day and night of the party- always stick with tried and true successes (but not the same dish over and over to the same guests,please!) or have a test run a week before.

Combine interesting flavors and colors, and watch for too much soft or too much hard food served together.


Do try to make things easy for yourself by doing as much preparation ahead of time as possible. All-important mood setters like lighting and music should be thought about well in advance, leaving no room for a last minute panic. Decorations such as flowers can be arranged the day before. Easy-to-prepare-and serve foods will leave the host more relaxed and able to enjoy the occasion just much as the guests. Many dishes can be frozen successfully, leaving only garnishes be added. The better the planning, the greater your enjoyment will be.

How Did the Earth Begin


How did our world begin? Where did it come from? It the ancient times, people made imaginative stories about the beginning of the earth, but these did not really explain what had happened.

Some people did not satisfy with these stories. They watched or observed, the skies carefully. They had no telescopes, but they could observe many things without telescopes. They saw that all the stars moved through the night sky as a group, as if they were tied together. They also saw that a few objects seem to wander among the stars. They called these objects “planets”, which come from a Greek word meaning ‘wanderer’.

The earth is a part of the solar system —the system of the sun. The moon and the other planets and their moon also a part of solar system. The sun at the centre and the planets move round the sun in paths called orbits. The third planet, counting upward in the sun, is the earth.

We want to know how the earth began. To find out, we must learn something about the beginning, or the origin, of the solar system. Scientists have given similar explanations, or theories, of how this might have happened. But nobody knows for sure.


One of the first of these theories was proposed by the great French astronomer and mathematician Pierre Laplace in 1766. It is called the nebular hypothesis. (A hypothesis is a guess that is based on facts and does not conflict with them.) Nebula is the Latin word for ‘cloud’; the universe contains many nebulae, or clouds made up of gas and dust.

Laplace believed that a sun was once a rotating cloud of a hot gas. The rotation caused the cloud to become round, like a huge ball. As the ball cooled, the cloud shrank in size and started to rotate faster. (A spinning skater spins faster, too, if he reduces his size by pulling in his arms.) The shrinking and spinning caused a ball to bulge to the equator and flatten out to the poles. A ring of gas and dust then formed round at the equator. This ring of material broke away from the ball, and the pieces joined together to form a planet. The planet orbited round the rest of the cloud. Meanwhile, the cloud went on spinning and shrinking faster and faster, producing more rings, each of them breaking away and forming a planet. Finally, a family of planets moving round a central globe of a hot gas-the sun was produced. The explanation seemed so reasonable that for a time everyone believe that this is how the earth and its sister planets began.

As more facts, we discover about the sun and the planets, the Laplace theory began to lose favour. The main problem was the fact that the sun spins slowly. If Laplace’s theory was true, it would spin quickly. Possibly the sun had slowed down, but no one could explain how this could have happened. So astronomers had to star all over again and look for new theories.


About 1900, Thomas Chamberlin and Forest Moulton, two American scientists, put forward a new idea. It was called the planetesimal theory. (‘Planetesimal’ means ‘little planet’.)Some years later, two British scientists, Sir James Jeans and Harold Jeffreys, proposed another theory called the tidal theory. There were some differences between the British and American theories, but the mean theories were the same. At first, according to these theories, the sun had no planets.  Then, ages ago, it came very close to another star. Each body exerted each pull of gravity on the other. This raised tidal wave of hot gas which swirled round the sun and the star. As they passed each other, streams of gas were pulled out into space between the two bodies. As these two bodies moved apart,  some of the streams of gas condensed to form planets.

These, too, looked like very good theories. But astronomers have had discarded them. For one thing, the passing star could not have given the planets enough motion to keep them in orbit round the sun. They would have fallen back into the sun and burnt up. Also, both theories were based on the chance of a star having passed close to the sun.

The Laplace Theory:  The ring of gas separates from the ball of gas at the equator.
The Laplace Theory:
The ring of gas separates from the ball of gas at the equator.
The material of the rings join together to form a planet.
The material of the rings join together to form a planet.
The clouds continues to shrink and spin, forming the family of planets which rotates around the sun.
The cloud continues to shrink and spin, forming the family of planets which rotates around the sun.
The Planetesimal Theory: A passing star raises tides  on the surface of the sun.
The Planetesimal Theory: A passing star raises tides on the surface of the sun.


Astronomers have since proposed more theories about the origin of the earth. All of these theories are of two main kinds. The natural, or evolutionary, theories suggest the planet form round a star as the star is created, or they form as part of a normal life. Laplace’s nebular hypothesis is of this kind. Other theories are called catastrophic theories. Such theories say that planets are created round a star only by an accident or a catastrophe, such as the approach of another star or a collision with it. The planetesimal theory is of this kind.

It is important which kind of theory is correct. If a natural theory is right, most stars should have planets. But if a catastrophic theory is the explanation on how the earth began,  then the creation of out planet and the life on it is still unusual event in the history of the universe. Stars are so far apart that an accident involving two stars must be very rare. In fact, during the lifetime of the solar system which is 4,600,000,000 years-only one in every 10,000,000,000 stars could have gained planet in this way.

Astronomers can in fact detect planets around the stars. They cannot see them through the telescopes because the stars are so far away. But the planets disturbed the motion of the stars and this motion can be seen. A natural theory is therefore much likely than a catastrophic one. In fact, Laplace’s hypothesis is now thought to be correct in outline.

Most astronomers now believe that the sun and the planet were formed from spinning cloud of dust and a gas. This theory was first developed by a German astronomer Carl van Weizsacker in the 1940s. Since then, the astronomers have added his theory, which is called the dust -cloud theory.

Throughout the universe, there are huge clouds of dust and gas. More than 5,000,000,000 years ago, according to the theory, a large number of dust particles within such a cloud began to condense and formed a globule. As the globule became round, like a ball, it began to spin. This spinning caused is to flatten out. The centre of the disc, was spinning slowly than the outer parts. It began to condense even more. Eventually, the energy released by this process caused the temperature and the pressure in the globule to become high that thermo-nuclear processes began. The star-our sun-then began to shine in its own right.

The outer parts of the dust cloud were spinning too fast to condense into one mass. They broke up into smaller, swirling masses of gas and dust, which condensed to form a planet.


What was the newly formed earth like? Was it a ball of red-hot glowing rock? Was it cold? Or was it perhaps liquid? These questions are of great important to geologists who study the earth.

Most geologists now agree on a general picture of a young earth. The earth formed a dust particles gathered together in a cloud in space. The particles attracted together and formed a solid globe. As the force of the gravity of globe pulled in more and more particles, a new world grew larger and larger.

As the earth grew, it was not very hot. Its temperature is probably the same about the boiling water (100-degree celsius). But today, the inside of the earth has a much higher temperature. It is now so hot that the rock there is molten and flows from volcanoes in fiery and deadly rivers of the lava.

How did the earth get so hot? There were probably several reasons of the heating of the young earth. The materials of which the earth is made contains radioactive elements such us uranium. These elements are constantly producing heat-enough, in fact, to keep the centre of the earth as hot as it is now. This might seem to explain how the interior of the earth became molten. But the study of rocks showed that this melting happened more quickly than can be explained by the radio-activity alone.

As the new planet grew, solid particles would have rained down upon its surface. The impact of each one would have produced a little heat-enough perhaps to heat the world so that its interior began to melt. Then, enough heat would be gained by radio-activity to keep the interior hot when the bombardment of the particles stopped.


One event that did not disturb the surface of our young world was the formation of the moon. Many astronomers once thought that the moon came from the earth. Some even suggested that the Pacific ocean covered that the hole that remained when the moon left the earth. But the Apollo moon landing settled this argument. The moon is different enough from the earth to show that it was never part of the earth. The moon is about same age as the earth-4,600,000,000 years. So it probably formed as separate body like the earth and other planets were themselves formed, from the cloud of gas and dust.


There are many clouds and dust scattered throughout the universe. Astronomers believed that stars and planets are forming there just as our solar system formed long ago.They also believe that other planets with some forms of life must exist somewhere far away in the universe. It is impossible to guess how many planets contain life. But in case you may be thinking that our world is a special one in the universe, keep this in mind: the earth is just one of the nine planets circling the sun, and the sun is just of 100,000,000,000 stars that make up the great island of stars called the Milky Way or the Galaxy.

Astronomers believe that they can detect about 1,000 stars which have planets, but these are only nearby stars. Possibly, almost all of the stars in the Galaxy have planets. And, if these were not enough to think about, our most powerful telescopes can locate the distance gleam of about 1,000,000,000 other galaxies in the universe. Therefore, the total numbers of planets in the universe is probably many millions of millions of millions.

The Three Great Kinds of Rocks

Wherever you may be as you read this, you are almost certain to be surrounded by rock. The soil in your garden is made up of tiny grains of rock and rests on a bed of solid rock. Bricks and concrete are also made from grains of rock. Even if you are reading this on board a ship or by the seaside, rock is still not far away. The water on which you may be sailing covers a huge basin of rock, and the sand on the beach is made up of tiny grains of rock.

Rock comes in all shapes and sizes, from soil and sand, through stones and pebbles to mountains, which are huge pieces of rock. In fact, the earth is a great ball of rock. If we could weigh our planet, it would tip the scales at 6,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons.


You will find that collecting rocks can be an interesting hobby, especially when you live near hills or mountains, where many different kinds can be found. Stones and pebbles have many different patterns and colors. You can make them look more than attractive by polishing them in a tumbler. This is a little machine that rubs them with a special powder. Some stones and pebbles may be so hard that you may have to polish them for weeks. Others may be so soft that they break up into powder in a tumbler.

As your collection grows, you will want to group, or classify, your finds in some way. You could do this by arranging the stones into groups of different colors, or perhaps into those with bands and those without bands. You could also classify them according to the places where you found the stones.

But a geologist (a scientist who studies the earth) would find that these ways of classifying rocks do not tell him very much about them. He would prefer to group the rocks according to the minerals they contain or the ways in which they form.


Minerals are the chemical substances of which rocks are made. There are many different minerals and some rocks are mixtures of minerals. You will need many small groups to classify rocks by their minerals. So it is better to classify rocks according to the way they form because there are only three kinds of rock formations. They are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Every rock you handle whether it is a heavy stone, a pebble or a handful of sand or soil-belongs to one of these three groups.

Igneous rocks are those that form when hot molten rock rises from the earth’s interior, then cools and hardens. Igneous is a good name for this kind because it means ‘fiery’. Sedimentary rocks grow from layers of sediment– deposit of sand, mud, clay, minerals and even animal or plant remains. The layers build up and slowly harden into rock. Metamorphic rocks form when a great heat of pressure underground acts on existing rocks and changes them into new rocks. Metamorphic means ‘changed’. Although they form underground, these rocks may later come to the surface. Sedimentary rocks are the most common of these three great classes. They cover two-thirds of the earth’s solid surface, including the ocean floors. Most of the remaining rock is igneous, and igneous rock always lies beneath a sedimentary rock. It forms the bases of continents and cores of mountains and supports the sedimentary rock ocean floor.

Red sandstone: sandstone is a sedimentary rock. It is formed from small grains of rock which change, under great pressure, into hard layers. Sandstone is sometimes used in the construction of buildings.
Red sandstone: sandstone is a sedimentary rock. It is formed from small grains of rock which change, under great pressure, into hard layers. Sandstone is sometimes used in the construction of buildings.
Marble is a metamorphic rock that is formed from limestone. It has great beauty and strength.
Marble is a metamorphic rock that is formed from limestone. It has great beauty and strength.
This igneous rock basalt was once a molten rock. It is often crushed and used to make roads.
This igneous rock basalt was once a molten rock. It is often crushed and used to make roads.

Igneous Rock-Hot and Cold

Round the earth’s solid inner core is an outer core of rock which is molten. Other rocks inside the earth are hot enough to melt, but the great pressure of cold rock on the surface keeps it solid. Where the pressure is lessened, such as in a passage opening toward’s the earth surface, the rock can melt. This molten rock is called magma. It rises slowly towards the surface. If it reaches the surface, it spouts from volcanoes in fiery rivers of molten rock that is called lava. Eventually, the lava cools and hardens to produce the igneous rock. Sometimes the magma does not get as far as the surface but cools and hardens beneath. The surface rocks may then gradually weather away to show the mass of igneous rock beneath. Igneous rocks that form at the surface is called extrusive rocks, and those that form below are called intrusive rocks.

There are many different types of igneous rocks, depending on the minerals in the lava or magma and on how fast it cools and hardens. If the cooling is very rapid, the result is a natural black glass called obsidian. The broken edges of obsidian, like those of any glass, are very sharp. American Indians made arrowheads, spear points and knives out of obsidian chips.

Most igneous rocks are made of masses of small grains or crystals. The crystals form as a molten rock cools and hardens. The slower the cooling, the larger the crystals. Glassy rocks form when the cooling is so rapid that there is no time for crystals to grow. Lava cools more quickly than the magma because it is open to the air at the earth’s surface. It usually forms a fine- grained rock called basalt. Basalt may be crushed and used in a road building. Sometimes basalt produces long columns of rock with several straight, flat sides. The steps of the Giant’s Causeway in Northern Ireland are the tops of basalt columns. This outcrop of rock sticks out into the sea towards Scotland. According to the legend, it was the beginning of the giant’s roadway across the water.

The grains in basalt are so small that they cannot be seen without the unaided eye. Another common igneous rock is granite, which has larger grains or crystals. This is because granite is an intrusive rock. It forms when magma cools underground. Being underground, away from the cold air, a magma cools slowly thus allowing large crystals to grow.  Granite and basalt are made up of several minerals. Each mineral forms as a liquid crystals as the liquid rocks cools. In granite, those crystals are large enough to be seen. They make up grainy patterns of pink and grey in rock.

Whole mountains of granite, once the cores of bigger mountains, lie exposed the earth;s surface. Parts of the Highlands in Scotland are made up of granite. The rock is very hard, and when polished, the grains produce a beautiful shine. Granite is often used for making roads and in large public buildings.

Much lava contains bubbles of gas. When the lava cools, it hardens into a kind of solid froth called pumice. The bubbles, which are trapped inside, make the pumice so light that it floats on the water. Pumice is often ground into fine powder and used as a polisher.

Cliff made of long columns of basalt.
Cliff made of long columns of basalt.
Magma, or molten rock, slowly rises towards the earth's surface. The magma may cool before it reaches the surface, forming a rock called granite.
Magma, or molten rock, slowly rises towards the earth’s surface. The magma may cool before it reaches the surface, forming a rock called granite.
Limestone is made from the shells of millions of tiny sea creatures.
Limestone is made from the shells of millions of tiny sea creatures.
Granite is made up of different minerals which forms separate crystals.
Granite is made up of different minerals which form separate crystals.

Shaping Sedimentary Rocks

Everything in our world us continually being down. Rocks are worn away by wind and ice, minerals turn into liquid by water, and all living things die. But our world is also ever-challenging, and these materials and remains are not lost but are used again to form sedimentary rocks.

Grains of rocks produced by the erosion (wearing away) of rock masses eventually settle in layers on beds of seas, lakes and rivers. As these layers get thicker and heavier, the lower ones are pressed down. They may also be squeezed by rock movements, and minerals left in them by water may cement the grains together. In ways, over a period of hundreds of thousands of years, the sediments become layers of hard rock.

Sandstone is one example of this kind of sedimentary rock. The layers that make it up can often be seen in sandstone cliffs. Sandstone maybe strong enough to be used as building stone. Shale is a similar sedimentary rock formed from tiny bits of mud and clay. The rocks can easily be split into layers, and is crushed to make tiles, bricks and cement. Shale is the most common in sedimentary rocks.

Certain minerals can be dissolved by water. This happens when water flows over rocks containing those minerals. That is how the sea become salty. In some places, water containing mineral in its dissolved state may be trapped in a pool. If a water evaporates (changes into vapour or gas) with the heat of the sun, the mineral is left as a layer in the ground where the pool was. A rock slowly builds up if this occur many times. Rock salt is one kind of a sedimentary rock that forms this way.

Limestone is a well-known sedimentary rock that forms from the remains of animals. It begins as tiny shells of dead sea animals settle in layers on the ocean floor. Gradually it hardens into rocks. Some of the shells are large enough for their remains to be seen in pieces of limestone. Lime- a substance used in glass, and in mortar for joining bricks and stones-is produced from limestone.

Coal is sedimentary rock. It comes from peat, which is formed from layers of the dead plants. Sometimes the outline of a leaf can be seen in a piece of coal. In fact, fossils (preserved remains) can be found only in sedimentary rocks. In other rocks, the heat that made them destroys any remain of plants and animals. Sedimentary rocks, therefore, are like books in which scientists can read the story of life on earth.

Metamorphic Rocks: All Change

There are always movements going all over the earth’s surface and inside it. These movements sometimes put a great strain on the rocks. Masses of hot igneous rock may rise towards the surface and heat other rocks in their path. Great movements may squeeze, fold and twist the rocks. Because of this, rocks change. Sedimentary and igneous rocks became metamorphic rocks, and existing metamorphic rocks may change to new metamorphic rocks. Shale becomes slate; the thin layers of soft shale change into the hard layers of slate that are sometimes used for making roofs. Limestone become marble, another metamorphic rock.

Pure marble is white, but small amounts of other minerals and rocks. Marble is sometimes used to make buildings look more beautiful, and many of the world’s finest statues are made up of white marble. Quartzite is a metamorphic rock formed from sandstone. The sand grain in a sandstone joined together, producing a very hard rock. Schist and gneiss are general names for two kinds of metamorphic rocks. A schist is made up of thin layers of minerals, and a gneiss contains light and dark bands.

When you look at the rocks, remember that new rocks like them are being formed all the time. The rocks you see will eventually be destroyed, their remains new rocks will be formed. Rocks are hard and last for a long time, but even they are a part of nature’s ever changing pattern.

The Importance of Oxidation- Reduction


To understand the significance of the oxidation and reduction

To balance the oxidation-reduction reactions

To become familiar with some breath tests

Oxidation Numbers

For ionic compounds, the oxidation number, sometimes called the charge of an element, is equal to the number of electrons lost or gained and, therefore, is the same as the charge on the ion. That is, in sodium chloride, Na+CI‾, the oxidation number of sodium is +1 and that of chlorine is -1. In the compound MgBr², where the magnesium ion has a charge of 2+ and each bromide ion a charge of 1-, the oxidation number of magnesium is +2 and that of each bromine -1.

For covalent compounds, where electrons are shared and not transferred, oxidation numbers are assigned to elements using the following rules.

All elements in their free state have an oxidation numbers of zero.

The oxidation number of oxygen is -2 (except in peroxides, where it is -1).

The oxidation number of hydrogen is +1 (except in metal hybrids, where it is -1).

The sum oxidation numbers in all compounds must equal to zero. (That is, all compounds are electrically neutral.)

All elements in group IA have an oxidation number of +1.

All elements in group llA have an oxidation number +2.


Oxidation is defined as a loss of electrons and also as an increase in oxidation number. Reduction is the opposite of oxidation- the gain of electrons, and, therefore, a decrease in oxidation number. Oxidization can never take place without the reduction because something must be able to pick up electrons lost by the oxidized atom, ion, or compound. Free electrons cannot exist by themselves for very long.

Antiseptic Effects

Because they are oxidizing agents, many *antiseptics have the property of killing bacteria. Among these is chlorine, which oxidizes organic matter and bacteria and so is used in the treatment of water to make it potable. Calcium hypochlorite, Ca (OCI)², another commonly used the oxidizing agent and bleaching powder, is used as a disinfectant with for clothes and hospital beds.

Formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide are two reducing agents used in disinfecting rooms formerly occupied by patients with contagious diseases.

Effects on Hair Protein

Oxidizing and reducing agents denature protein by affecting the disulfide bonds of the amino acid cysteine. Use is made of this effect in “home permanents.” Hair protein is primarily keratin, and keratin contains the large amount of the cysteine. During the treatment, a reducing agent is used first. This substance breaks the disulfide bonds in the hair protein. The hair is then shaped with rollers. The new shape is “set” by an oxidizing agent, which forms new disulfide bonds in the desired places. The hair will retain its new shape only until new hair grows out. The entire process has to be repeated.

Black and White Photography

In black and white photography (as in making of x-ray films), oxidation-reduction reactions occur.

Photographic film has an emulsion containing silver bromide (AgBr), which is highly sensitive to light. Exposure to light (or radiation) activates some of the silver ions to the emulsion.

When the film is developed, the activated silver ions react with the developers, hydroquinone, which is a reducing agent. The activated silver ions are reduced to black metallic silver.

Ag+ → Ag↓

The next step in the process, called fixing, sodium uses thiosulfate (Na²S²O³) to dissolve the inactivated silver bromide. If the remaining AgBr were not removed, it would gradually darken when later exposed to the light.

After washing and drying, the negative is ready for use. Areas of the film that were exposed to the greatest amount of light (or radiation) are darkest, whereas those exposed to the least amount of light are the lightest.

That is, in, a negative, the dark and light areas of the object are reversed.

A print, called positive, is made by shining light through the negative onto a piece photographic paper containing a silver bromide emulsion. The same processes as in developing negatives are used. But this time, the dark areas of the negative (which come from the light area of the object) appear light and the light areas on the negative appear dark

Breath-Alcohol Analyzer

Reactions involving the oxidation-reduction are used to measure the amount of alcohol in the driver’s breath. A sample of the driver’s breath is blown through an orange colored solution of acidified potassium dichromate.

The chromic sulfate thus produces is green. The greater the amount of alcohol in a driver’s breath can be determined by comparing the color produced with that of the standardized chart.

Other Breath Tests

Analysis of human breath has confirmed the presence of nearly 400 gaseous compounds. One of these tests, for alcohol, as indicated, in the previous paragraph, has been widely used. However, the detection of the other gases in the breath can be of diagnostic value.

The detection of acetone on the breath is an indication of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.

Some breath analysis tests require an individual to consume large quantities of a specific precursor to a volatile compound. The disease may reveal itself by the presence of a certain breakdown products that appear in the breath.

In the test of malabsorption syndrome, a patient is given an oral dose of xylose, a carbohydrate. The appearance of large quantities of hydrogen in the breath in the succeeding few hours is the confirmation of this syndrome.

Damage to the pancreas can be detected by the administration of the rich starch orally, and then testing the breath for hydrogen.

Pancreatic disease can be detected by using the radioactive carbon. The amount of the radioactive carbon dioxide can be an indication of pancreatic malfunction.

The use of the galactose can be used to test for a liver damage by testing for the amount of the level of the carbon dioxide.

Another test for the liver disease involves the presence of the dimethyl sulfide in the breath.

How to Treat Insomnia by Acupuncture


The first impression in using the pointed objects to cure insomnia is widely known as dysfunctional, but according to the research, the first impression is wrong. Treatment of insomnia using Acupuncture for sleep disorder is proven as the most effective relief. The practice of Acupuncture is to place a very thin needle through the skin of the identified locations in the body to heal and cast the symptoms of insomnia. This practice is prevalent as a Chinese Traditional Medicine and has utilized several hundred years ago. Nowadays, the acupuncture is combined with more interventions like applying a small current of electric to the needles or burning the herbs through the acupuncture points. This is called Moxibustion (burning of floss or herbs applied to the skin).

People who are enduring insomnia may only take six or a shorter time to sleep for three nights or more over a month and may encounter 30 minutes of the wait before getting drowsy. The specific symptoms may include the hardness of sleep in the evening, waking up in the middle of the night, waking up too early, not feeling relaxed or rested after a night sleep, weariness and drowsiness in the daytime, irritable, depressed, and anxious, hardness on concentrating small or big tasks and difficulty in remembering, increases mishaps and errors, headache, gastrointestinal tract, keep worrying to strive a deep sleep.

Since insomnia is the most common sleep problem, applying acupuncture should be performed not tomorrow, but now because it may increase the risk of anxiety, depression, and heart failure if not treated early. This may also double the risk of diabetes and cognitive heart disease or even death according to the study.

Nowadays, more and more generalizations can be performed concerning the aging stage and sleep qualities of a person. It is proven that the elder people are tending to overcome less total of the nighttime slumber than the younger people. The elderly people have more night-time activities and arousal that often push them in waking up in the late evening hours. When they experience the daytime drowsiness, it is because of the effect of failing to sleep in the night. Therefore, the sleep-wake period to the elders may be fragmented, with the interrupted evening slumber and the day awakening prevented by sleeps. The hollow periods of the non-REM nap are diminished or unreal to the elders; however, REM nap tends to be preserved. Although a moderate degeneration in slumber condition may be common throughout the aging system, an aged patient’s malady of significantly disturbed the midnight sleep or reduced the daytime functioning as of extreme sleepiness needs to be evaluated.

Acupuncture Treatments to Various Kinds of Diseases

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The study said that it is widely recognized that the emotional distress lead to immune practice impairment and the treatment, however, could bring to rebuild the immune response. Furthermore, the purpose of the current work is to find out the results or effect of an acupuncture therapy, designed transparently to cure the emotional symptoms from the anxiety, on many functions such as adherence, basal, chemotaxis, stimulated superoxide anion levels, phagocytosis, lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin A (PHA), additionally, the natural killer (NK) activity) of the leukocytes (neutrophils and lymphocytes) from the anxious women.

According to the result, it appears 72 hours after the single sitting and endures a month at the edge of the final treatment. The damaged immune functions to the anxious women (phagocytosis, chemotaxis, NK activity, and lymph proliferation) were significantly amplified by the acupuncture, and increased the immune parameters (lymph proliferation superoxide anion and the levels of a patient group whose price is expensive) were notably reduced. Acupuncture implements the parameters to evaluate intimately to people of their strong controls, exercising a modulatory influence to every patient’s immune system.

For a thousand years ago, acupuncture therapy has been the most effective treatment for the people that enduring neurological diseases. According to the study, the needling of acupuncture point may initiate the afferent tissues including the peripheral nerves used to elicit De-Qi consciousness, then sprout essentially through to the ventrolateral funicular which control pain as well as the heat and cold consciousness up to the particular brain functions and signals, and stimulate the ant nociceptive practice involving the specific brain nuclei, the modulators or opioid peptides, and neurotransmitters, into the declined inhibitory pathway, rising in analgesia. Acupuncture has also been used to cure the cardiovascular symptoms and applied to treat a cardiovascular disease like cardiac arrhythmia, high blood pressure, and hypotension. Acupuncture can also accentuate the patient’s immune function and treat sorts of woman’s reproductive issues like infertility, premenopausal syndrome, and PCOS by the neuro-endocrine-immune system.

The acupuncture clinical study at Neiguan was organized on the foundation of the prosperous therapy of a patient that was enduring angina pectoris as well as the acute myocardial infarct. The efficient ratings of 91.3% had been proven to be excellent to the isosorbide dinitrate, as well as the nifedipine. The laboratory analysis of the vertebrate specimens had illustrated that the electro-acupuncture can effectively reduce the eminent ST portion throughout the ECGs and decrease the infarct location affected by the coronary ligation.

Another practical study found at the 6th European Breast Cancer Conference (EBCC-6) in Berlin that acupuncture is the lengthy process to cure women that have experienced hot flushes and obtain the tamoxifen after the procedure of the breast cancer surgery. Acupuncture does not cost high price of expense and no side- effects to manage the hot flushes. These are the acupuncture’s advantages that people should have known.


The medical advice to perform the acupuncture procedure is the acupuncturist should sterilize the disposable needles before handling in the body because they don’t cause any harm if they are inserted in the skin. The acupuncturist will mark the area that requires stimulation and implant the estimated numbers of the needles to hit the certain organs.

Six Self-Care Tasks after the Treatment

  1. Rest well. Resting well authorizes the patient’s physical and emotional restoration that acupuncture sets in motion to continue.
  2. Try to walk at the day after the treatment of acupuncture.
  3. Do not use ice to relieve the pain after the treatment, but heat.
  4. Alcohol and coffee should be avoided to stay hydrated because they may provide toxins that will released to the system.
  5. Avoid watching TV.
  6. Consume healthy foods.

Tips to Strengthen the Immune System

The answer to a question being asked by fewer people is, “if Acupuncture can boost the Immune System”. As always, it’s amazingly “YES.”

Stress and depression may lower the immunity of the body although the patient has a healthy body.

To increase the immune system in the body, some certain activities should be performed.

  • Taking a cold shower once a day.
  • Go out and exercise whether the weather is hot or cold.
  • Eat healthy foods at the right amounts.
  • Do not drift off to sleep late, do it regularly.
  • Control your stress and manage your time in working.
  • Do not take anti-biotic, sinusitis medications, and antihistamine tablets.
  • Rest well when ill and apply herbs or natural plants to fight the infection in a natural way.

Qigong is the other way to prevent the risk after the therapy because it influences the flow of a person’s vital energy in the body. A deep breathing, relaxation strategies and a wide concentration are called as the internal Qigong. However, the External Qigong is performed by the “Qigong masters” only who are well-known to cure the various diseases through the use of their fingers. The scientific investigators in China ended up with the wrong impression that Qigong masters are using their supernatural powers to cure a patient effectively.

The Advantages Use of Acupuncture

Acupuncture causes the various helpful health improvements to the lives of many people and is proven from the top studies. In every chronic condition, nausea, and great pain, acupuncture is universally associated as one of the best treatment. This is being applied to the army physicians recently in USA. It is also the most influential therapy to reduce the emotional stress as well as a psychological problem that a person is experiencing.

Acupuncture is not just globally proven the effectiveness to heal the various diseases, but the other advantages are the cheaper pricing and using the non-invasive analysis. This treatment is suitable to all ages and the physical qualities of the patient. Its greatest success is it tries its best to heal the causes of the pain by the energy flow fix.  Several healing practices or drugs desire unreasonably to slow down the symptoms that the patient is experiencing without making the entire resolution. This can be harmful and may lead to a long-term healing instead of achieving a short-term healing.

Why Acupuncture is Getting Popular?

This therapeutic meditation has been practiced widely in America. Based on the result of the survey in 2007 conducted by the National Health Interview Survey, there are various adults in 3.1 million undergo for this treatment and 150,000 children annually. The popularity of this healing is surmounting every time, based on the similar survey. The main reasons are people used to experience the procedure painless and no harm even if it is inevitable that there are sensitive patients undergo the treatment. The needles are stimulated by the manual manipulation, electricity and heat depending on the practitioner. Because of its effectiveness to heal various kinds of diseases, the practitioners and scientists came to predict that acupuncture has a bright future as it serves the economic procedure for medical care. Indeed, the legislators are finding methods for political advantage to become part of acupuncture.

The Advices for Patients before Experiencing the Acupuncture

Everyone shouldn’t think the scarier things when undergoing this treatment the fact that the needles used by the acupuncturists are safe and not painful compared to the common needles. The acupuncture needles are thin and small like the strand of our hairs. During the process, pain is not a big problem.

However, a patient must avoid eating an inadequate amount of meal before experiencing the treatment. It doesn’t need to consume lots of snacks much because it is difficult to lay the stomach when a person is full.

Information when a patient is yet fearful to undergo the treatment because of the needles, laser acupuncture is the best fit. The laser therapy is continuously using light to set the tension on most areas in the body. It is proven that no harm and pain are involved as stated by many people who are uncertain in needles.

Remember to wear comfy clothing before enduring the treatment like wearing loose t-shirt since the acupuncturist may determine it accessible to attack the target.

A patient needs to avoid in taking vitamins and supplements or ask the physician first before taking the appointment. Use vitamins and food supplements may decrease the factor of effective treatment.

Radioactivity and its Type to Produce During Radioactive Decay


The sources of radiation are the body receives a radiation externally from the three principal sources: natural background radiation, medical radiation, and the radioactive wastes.


To balance nuclear reactions

To be aware of the units of radiation and of the methods used to detect radiation

The Discovery of Radioactivity

In 1896 a French physicist, Henry Becquerel (1852-1908), found that uranium crystals had the property of “fogging” a photographic place that had been placed near those crystals. This fogging took place even though the photographic plate was wrapped in black paper. By placing crystals of uranium on a photographic plate covered with black paper and then developing the plate, he obtained a self-picture of the crystals. Becquerel concluded that the uranium gave off some kind of radiation of rays that affected the photographic plate.

Sometimes like uranium that spontaneously gives off radiation are said to be radioactive. Radioactivity is the property that causes the element to emit radiation. This radiation comes from the nucleus of the atom.

Types of Radiation Produced by a Radioactive Substance

The following experiment was performed to study the radiation and produced by a radioactive element. A piece of radium was placed at the bottom of a thick lead well. The purpose all the lead was to absorb all the radiation except that going directly upward. The escaping radiation was allowed to fall on a photographic plate. When the radiation was passed through a strong electrostatic field, three different areas showed up on the photographic plate. This indicated that were actually three different kinds of radiation. These were called alpha, beta, and gamma.

Alpha Particles

Alpha particles (α particle) are attracted toward the negative electrostic field, which indicates that they are positively charged. Alpha particles consist of positively charge of helium nuclei; that is, they consist of the nuclei of helium atoms (each of which contains two protons and two neutrons) and so they have a charge of +2. Alpha particles have a very low penetrating power. They can be stopped by a piece of paper or by a thin sheet of aluminum foil. Alpha particles are relatively harmless when they strike the body because they do not penetrate the outer layer of the skin. However, if the source of alpha particles is inhaled or ingested or gets into the body through an open wound, then those particles can cause damage to the cells and to the internal organs.

Alpha particles result from the radioactive decay of heavy elements such as uranium and radium.

Beta Particles

Beta particles (β particles) are attracted toward the positive electrostatic field, which indicates that they consist negatively charged particles. Beta particles consist of high-speed electrons that travel in excess of 100,000 miles per second. Note that beta particles (electrons) are produced in the nucleus by the transformation of the neutron into a proton and an electron. The electron is emitted as a beta particle and a proton remains in the nucleus. Beta particles (electrons) have a charge of -1.

Beta particles have a slight penetrating power. They pass through a sheet of paper but can be stopped by heavy clothing. When beta particles strike the body, they penetrate only a few millimeters and do not reach any vital organs. If a source of beta particles should be inhaled or ingested, those particles could only cause the internal damage to the body cells and the organs.

Beta particles are deflected by the electrostatic field to a much greater extent than are the alpha particles. This indicates that the beta particles have much smaller mass than the alpha particles.

Gamma Rays

Gamma rays (γ rays) are not affected by the electrostatic field because they have no charge. They are not particles at all; they have no mass. Gamma rays are the form of electromagnetic radiation similar to x-rays. Gamma rays are very penetrating; they will pass through the body, causing cellular damage as they travel through. Gamma rays are often emitted along with alpha or beta particles. Gamma rays are originated from unstable atoms releasing energy to gain stability. The “gamma knife” focuses a dose of gamma radiation to a precise target point to the brain. It is used to treat deep-seated brain tumors that were previously considered inoperable. There is no incision in the scalp and no need for general anesthesia.

Other Types of Radiation

X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation usually produced by machines, whereas gamma rays are emitted by radioactive substances.

Neutrons are released from elements that undergo spontaneous fission. Their relatively large mass gives them great energy, and because they have no charge they readily penetrate the body. Neutrons are used in the treatment of cancer.

Units of Radiation

Radiation is measured in terms of several different units, depending on whether the measurement relates to a physical or a biological effect.

The physical unit of radiation is a measure of the number of nuclear disintegrations occurring per second in a radioactive source. The standard unit is the *curie, which is defined as the number of the nuclear disintegrations occurring per second in 1 g of radium; 1 curie (1 Ci) equals 37 billion disintegration per second. Smaller units are the mill curie (1 mCi=37 million disintegrations per second) and the micro curie (1 μCi= 37,000 disintegrations per second). These smaller units are frequently used in describing the amount of radioactive fallout. The curie is not useful in biologic work because it simply indicates the number of disintegrations per second regardless of the type of radiation and regardless of the effect of that radiation upon tissue.

The *roentgen (abbreviated R) is a unit of radiation generally applied to x-rays and gamma rays only. X-rays and gamma rays produce ionization in the air and also in tissue. The roentgen is defined as the intensity of X-rays or gamma rays that produces 2 billion ion pairs in 1 mL of air. This is not the same of tissue as it is for air so that the roentgen does not accurately indicate the amount of radiation on tissue.

The *rad (radiation absorbed dose) refers to the amount of radiation energy absorbed by the tissue that has been radiated. One rad corresponds to the absorption of 100 ergs of energy per gram of tissue. An erg is a very small unit of energy. More than 40 million ergs are required to the equal 1 cal. However, even if the erg is an extremely small unit of energy, the effect of 1 rad (100 ergs per gram) is important because of the ionization that the radiation produces in the cells. The Sl unit for the absorbed dosage of radiation is the gray.

Different types of radiation cause different biological damage to the cells. This difference in biologic effectiveness may be expressed in terms of the relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of radiation.

The standard for RBEs is the gamma radiation from Cobalt 60.

Detection and Measurement of Radiation

The problem of detecting and measuring radiation is very important in medical work, particularly in the protection of personnel. One device used to detect radiation is the Geiger counter. This device consists of a glass tube containing a glass at low pressure through which runs a wire connected to a high-voltage power supply. When the device is brought close to a radioactive substance, the radiation causes a momentary current to flow through the tube. A speaker is usually placed in the cirl counting device is connected to the tube to indicate the amount of radiation.

Scanners use another type of device, called a crystal of sodium iodide containing a small amount of thallium iodide. When the crystal is hit by radiation, it gives off a flash of light, scintillations, and the result is produced a “scan.”

X-ray technicians and others who work around radiation usually are required to wear film badges. These badges indicate the accumulated amount of radiation to which they have been exposed. They contain a piece of photographic.